List of Figures

Chapter 2: Climate Change

2.1 Tipping points and temperature rise

2.2 Delay in action and escalation in cost (percentage increase)

2.3 INDCs of countries representing 78% of global energy-related emissions.

2.4 The projected impact of INDC pledges on temperature rise.

Chapter 3: Depletion of Ozone Layer

3.1 Progress of Montreal Protocol in the history of ozone depletion.

3.2 Consumption and production of all ODS (1986−2010).

3.3 Global CFC, HCFC, and HFC consumption trends

Chapter 4: Loss of Biodiversity

4.1 Elevation of the modern vertebrate extinction rates over the background extinction rate.

4.2 Primary threat to LPI populations.

4.3 Global ecological footprint by component (1961−2011).

4.4 Top five nations with highest ecological footprints till 2011.

4.5 Top five countries with the highest ecological deficit (till 2011)

4.6 Flow map of threats to species.

4.7 Catalogued and estimated species richness of invertebrates and vertebrates.

4.8 Global status of invertebrates currently assessed on the IUCN Red List (12,621 species).

4.9 Red list status for all 6424 known amphibian species  

4.10 Region-wise phylogenetic diversity predicted to be lost with extinction of currently threatened species.

4.11 Predicted land-use system changes (2000−30): Remote forest and populated areas with forest converted into rainfed cropland systems and pastoral systems.

4.12 Tree cover, forest loss, and forest gain

4.13 Countries dominating cacao production in 2013.

4.14 E stimated change in extent of mangrove cover by region and worldwide from 1980 to 2005 .

4.15 Global fish production from (2007−12).

4.16 Major marine fishery producing countries

4.17 Global per capita fish supply compared with the growing human population

4.18 Decline in fish stocks fished within biologically sustainable limits between 1974 and 2011.

4.19 Goal score comparison (2012−14)

4.20 Timeline of various conventions.

4.21 The number of transactions recorded by CITES from 2001 to 2013

4.22 Year-wise share of natural heritage areas .

4.23 Number of natural heritage properties examined over the years (last updated July 2015).

4.24 Progress in the creation of protected areas between 1962 and 2014

4.25 R egion-wise percentage of marine areas (0−200 nautical miles) covered by protected areas .

4.26 R egion-wise percentage of terrestrial areas covered by protected areas .

4.27 Total area of forestry under FSC and PEFC certification in boreal, temperate, and tropical regions  

4.28 Total ecosystem service values by tropical forests in America, Africa, Oceania based on a meta-analysis of TEE B data.

4.29 Status of National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans .

4.30 Overall progress towards achieving the Aichi 56 target elements based on national level reporting (64 reports).

4.31 Trends in indicators from 2000 and projected to 2020 for the five strategic goals of the strategic plan for biodiversity (2011−20).

Chapter 5: Desertification

5.1 UNCCD delineation of drylands.

5.2 Population of the dryland in different regions of the world

5.3 Percentage of degraded land under various land uses.

5.4 Projected meat demand (from 2005/07 to 2050).

5.5 Biophysical status of land.

5.6 Biophysical land degradation process.

5.7 Land degradation classes (combination of biophysical status and biophysical degradation).

5.8 Land degradation impact index

Chapter 6: Unsustainable Use of Natural Resources

6.1 Classification of natural resources

6.2 Framework for sustainable use of natural resources.

6.3 Dynamics of resource efficiency.

6.4 Primary forests in tropics.

6.5 Global forest area loss (1990–2015)

6.6 Forest area under various kinds of SFM tools

6.7 Management status of forests.

6.8 Total afforestation area (1990−2015)

6.9 The big water cycle

6.10 Total renewable water resources per capita (2013)

6.11 Demand–supply gap (water gap) in business-as-usual scenario

6.12 MDG target achievement in drinking water  

6.13 (a) Trends in global drinking water coverage and MDG targets (%) 1990–2015 and (b) Regions which achieved MDG target 1990–2015.

6.14 Capture production in (a) marine waters (million tonnes); (b) inland waters (million tonnes)

6.15 Global trend in the state of world marine fish stocks assessed in the period 1974−2011.

6.16 Percentage of marine area protected (0−200 nautical miles)

6.17 Global fish production: data and projections (1984–2030)

6.18 Life cycle of GHG emissions by source

6.19 Production volume and R/P ratio of crude oil

6.20 Production volume and R/P ratio of natural gas.

6.21 Global lifetimes of fossil fuels .

Chapter 7: Environmental Pollution

7.1 R egional shares in emissions of different pollutants (in 2010)  

7.2 PM10 levels in different regions of the world

7.3 Annual average PM10 concentrations in different cities across the world.

7.4 Different pollutants and their possible impacts on human society .

7.5 Annual global mortalities due to different causes .

7.6 Total global deaths attributable to household and ambient air pollutions in 2012 (by region) .

Chapter 8: Food Security and Safety

8.1 Overview of the FNS system

8.2 Average value of food production (constant US$ per person) (3-year average).

8.3 Total production of cereals (MT).

8.4 Total production of roots and tubers (MT).

8.5 Total production of pulses (MT).

8.6 Gross per capita production index number (2004–2006 = 100) (US$).

8.7 Total milk production in various regions of the world (in tonnes)

8.8 Total meat production in various regions of the world (in tonnes)

8.9 Protein supply from animal sources (g/capita/day).

8.10 Protein supply in India from animal sources (g/capita/day).

8.11 Average protein supply (g/capita/day) (3-year average).

8.12 Average dietary energy supply adequacy (%) (3-year average)

8.13 Share of dietary energy supply derived from cereals, roots, and tubers (%) (3-year average).

8.14 Global map of biotech crop countries and mega countries in 2014.

8.15 Import trends over the past 50 years for various food categories in different FAO regions.

8.16 E xport trends over the past 50 years for various food categories in different FAO regions.

8.17 Number of undernourished (in million)

8.18 Trends in prevalence of undernourishment by regions as a percentage

8.19 Number of undernourished people in Africa (in million)

8.20 Trends in prevalence of undernourishment in Sub-Saharan Africa (as a percentage).

8.21 Number of undernourished in Asia (in million)

8.22 Trends in prevalence of undernourishment in Asia (as percentage)

8.23 By region percentage share of undernourished people in the world in 1990–92

8.24 By region percentage share of undernourished people in the world in 2014–16

8.25 Percentage of access to improved water resources in developing regions

8.26 Prevalence of undernourishment (%) with 3 years average .

8.27 Prevalence of child underweight in developing regions

8.28 Percentage of stunted children under 5 years of age (left) and percentage of overweight children under 5 years of age (right)

8.29 Proportion (percentage) of SAC (school-age children) estimated to be at risk for mild, moderate, and severe iodine deficiency (left) and top 10 iodine-deficient countries (based on national median UIC, 100 mg/L) (right).

8.30 Percentage prevalence of anaemia among children under 5 years of age (left) and pregnant women (right).

Chapter 9: Health and Well-being

9.1 The number of diarrhoeal cases among children below 5 years of age in WHO regions in 2000 and 2013.

9.2 Trend of the death percentage owing to diarrhoea among children aged below 5 years

9.3 Incidence of malaria in WHO regions except Africa.

9.4 Increase in the coverage and current coverage level of measles vaccination among 1-year olds, world regions, 1990–2013

9.5 global share of HIV/AIDS deaths (in percentage), world regions, 2013

9.6 Incidence of TB (per 100,000 population per year).

9.7 Countries of (a) African region and (b) Southeast Asian region of WHO with the highest number of incident TB cases in 2013

9.8 Global comparison of TB incidence with death cases in different WHO regions in 2013

9.9 Trends of death percentage in children below 5 years of age in the WHO regions (2000–13).

9.10 Age standardized prevalence rate (in percentage) of smoking any tobacco product in 2012 (population aged 15 years and above).

9.11 Comparison of global and regional reduction in MMR with the levels of 1990.

9.12 Reduction in infant, neonatal, and under-five mortality rates in world regions (1990–2013).

Chapter 10: Education and Learning

10.1 Net enrolment ratio in primary schools in 1990, 2000, and 2015 (percentage of primary school age)

10.2 Number of out-of-school children of primary school age, selected regions, 1990−2015 (million)

10.3 Gender parity index for gross enrolment ratios in primary, secondary, and tertiary education in developing regions (1990, 2000, and 2015).

10.4 Global enrolment in higher education (million).

Chapter 12: Energy for All

12.1 Correlation between HDI and electricity consumption per capita.

Chapter 14: Assessing Progress of Millennium Development Goals

14.1 E nrolment versus out-of-school rates

14.2 Status of global performance on each of the MDGs as assessed using selected indicators .

14.3a Measures of inequality and hunger

14.3b Measures of inequality and infant mortality

14.4 Global peace and development.

14.5 Net ODA average per capita in developing regions

14.6 Net ODA as a share to GNI in developing regions.

Chapter 15: Sustainable Development Goals: Towards Agenda 2030

15.1 Commitments in multi-stakeholder partnerships for people, planet, prosperity, and partnership in 2015 .

15.2 Status of indicators based on three criteria .

Chapter 16: Measuring Progress

16.1 Herman Daly’s triangle from ultimate means to ultimate ends.

16.2 Current status of the control variables for seven of the planetary boundaries

16.3 Carbon emissions and sinks since 1750.

16.4 By country, energy use per capita 2013

16.5 World energy mix (2016).

16.6 Progress and pitfall of five capitals.