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Renewable Energy from Small & Micro Hydro Projects: Practical Aspects and Case Studies

  • Author(s): S R Awasthi and Vishal Pandey
  • Size: 180 mm x 240 mm
  • Pages: 350
  • Binding: Paperback
  • Publishing Status: Forthcoming
  • Language: English
  • ISBN: 9789386530929
  • Cover Price:

    Rs.550.00 / US $39.00

  • Special Price: Rs. 495.00 / US $35.00

Book Details

The book introduces the process of developing hydropower projects in India. It emphasizes on the role of hydroelectric power as a part of water management and also in combating climate change. It discusses at length selection of suitable sites,hydro turbines, electrical systems, transportation, and salient features of dam and reservoir operation. The cost estimation, feasibility studies, promotional policies of the government and other organisations are provided. The book also covers the basics of fluid mechanics along with an overview of the hydropower development in India and the world. Important statistical data of India and the world are also given. It will be a useful guide and reference to students, designers, planners, consultants and field engineers.

Table of Contents

    Foreword

    Preface  

    1. An Overview of Renewable and Hydropower Development 

    1.1 CLIMATE UNCERTAINTY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY  

    1.2 HISTORY OF HYDROPOWER DEVELOPMENT   

    1.3 HYDROPOWER DEVELOPMENT: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES 

    1.4 CLASSIFICATION OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER PROJECTS   

    1.5 GLOBAL SCENARIO OF  HYDROPOWER

    1.6 INDIAN HYDROPOWER SCENARIO  

    2. Hydrology and Energy Estimation

    2.1 SELECTION OF SITE 

    2.2 WATER RESOURCE

    2.3 HYDROLOGY 

    2.4 RATING CURVES  

    2.5 HYDROGRAPH AND FLOW DURATION CURVE 

    2.6 ENERGY ESTIMATION

    • 2.6.1 Discharge
    • 2.6.2 Head
    • 2.6.3 Overall Efficiency
    • 2.6.4 Power Potential and Energy Estimation 

    3. Civil Structures and Associated Equipments

    3.1 HYDROPOWER PROJECTS AND CIVIL WORKS

    • 3.1.1 Quantum of Civil Work
    • 3.1.2 Run-of-River Projects 
    • 3.1.3 Storage Projects
    • 3.1.4 Pumped Storage Power Project 

    3.2 DAMS

    • 3.2.1 Classification of  Dams by Structure and Design
    • 3.2.2 Special Purpose Dams and Reservoirs    

    3.3 DIVERSION STRUCTURES FOR DAM

    • 3.3.1 River Diversion Tunnel
    • 3.3.2 River Diversion Conduits
    • 3.3.3 River Diversion Canal 

    3.4 RESERVOIRS AND THEIR OPERATION

    3.5 WATER CONDUCTOR SYSTEM

    • 3.5.1 Headrace Channel/tunnel
    • 3.5.2 De-silting Chamber
    • 3.5.3 Surge Tank 
    • 3.5.4 Intake Gate
    • 3.5.5 Penstock Butterfly Valve
    • 3.5.6 Penstock
    • 3.5.7 Discharge through Power House  
    • 3.5.8 Tailrace Channel/tunnel    

    3.6 POWER HOUSE

    • 3.6.1 Power House Layout
    • 3.6.2 Design Considerations for a Power House
    • 3.6.3 Structural Design of a Power House

    4. Basics of Fluid Mechanics            

    4.1 CLASSIFICATION OF FLUIDS

    4.2 CHARACTERISTIC OF  WATER

    4.3 PASCAL’S LAW AND ITS APPLICATIONS

    4.4 PRESSURE MEASUREMENT

    4.5 TYPES OF FLUID FLOW: STREAM LINE AND TURBULENT

    4.6 WATER FLOW EQUATIONS

    • 4.6.1 Velocity Equation
    • 4.6.2 Bernoulli’s Equation
    • 4.6.3 Continuity Equation
    • 4.6.4 Power Equation

    4.7 FLOW MEASUREMENT

    • 4.7.1 Pitot Tube
    • 4.7.2 Venturimeter
    • 4.7.3 Orifice Meter

    4.8 HEAD MEASUREMENT

    • 4.8.1 Dumpy Levels and Theodolite
    • 4.8.2 Sighting Meters
    • 4.8.3 Water Filled Tube and Pressure Gauge
    • 4.8.4 Water Filled Tube and Rod
    • 4.8.5 Spirit Level and Plank
    • 4.8.6 Maps
    • 4.8.7 Altimeters

    4.9 CAVITATION IN HYDRO TURBINES

    5. Hydro Turbines    

    5.1 ORIENTATION OF TURBINES 

    5.2 TURBINES CLASSIFICATION,  CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION

    5.2.1 Impulse Turbines: Pelton Family 

    • 5.2.1.1 Pelton turbine 
    • 5.2.1.2 Turgo impulse turbine
    • 5.2.1.3 Cross flow turbine

    5.2.2  Reaction Turbines: Francis Family

    • 5.2.2.1 Francis turbine 
    • 5.2.2.2 Deriaz turbine
    • 5.2.2.3 Reversible pump-turbine   

    5.2.3  Reaction Turbines: Kaplan Family

    • 5.2.3.1 Kaplan turbine     
    • 5.2.3.2 Propeller turbine    
    • 5.2.3.3 Semi-Kaplan turbine 
    • 5.2.3.4 Tubular or S-type turbine    
    • 5.2.3.5 Bulb turbine 
    • 5.2.3.6 Straflo turbine 

    5.2.4  Difference between Impulse and Reaction Turbine

    5.2.5  Screw Hydro Turbine

    5.3 TURBINE EFFICIENCY  

    5.4 SELECTION OF HYDRO TURBINES 

    6. Hydrogenerators and Excitation Systems

    6.1 HYDROGENERATORS  

    •  6.1.1 Synchronous Generator 
    •  6.1.2 Induction Generator 
    •  6.1.3 Vertical Axis Generators
    •  6.1.4 Horizontal Axis Generators 

    6.2 EXCITATION SYSTEMS

    • 6.2.1 Static Excitation
    • 6.2.2 Brushless Excitation 

    7. Power Plant Auxiliaries and Systems  

    7.1 UNIT AND STATION AUXILIARIES

    • 7.1.1 Turbine: Unit Auxiliaries
    • 7.1.2 Generator: Unit Auxiliaries
    • 7.1.3 Station Auxiliaries                            

    7.2 GOVERNING SYSTEMS

    7.3 INSTRUMENTS AND DEVICES 

    7.4 CONTROLS

    7.5 PROTECTION

    • 7.5.1 Abnormal Conditions
    • 7.5.2 Protection to Generating Unit and Transformer
    • 7.5.3 Devices used in a Typical Protection System 

    7.6 COMMISSIONING AND POWER EVACUATION

    • 7.6.1 Power Flow to Transformer and Switchyard
    • 7.6.2 Commissioning  
    • 7.6.3 Power Transmission

    8. Project Execution and Financial Aspects     

    8.1 MILESTONES OF A PROJECT EXECUTION

    • 8.1.1 Pre-feasibility Studies  
    • 8.1.2 Feasibility Studies  
    • 8.1.3 Detailed Investigations and DPR 
    • 8.1.4 Project Construction    

    8.2 PROJECT APPROVALS AND TIME CYCLE  

    8.3 PROJECT COST

    • 8.3.1 Financial Viability of Project
    • 8.3.2 Capital Cost 
    • 8.3.3 O&M Expenses

    8.4 HYDRO ENERGY TARIFF

    • 8.4.1 Tariff Structure
    • 8.4.2 Tariff Norms and Electricity Regulatory Commissions
    • 8.4.3 Illustration of Tariff Determination 
    • 8.4.4 Clean Development Mechanism

    8.5 PROJECT FINANCING

    • 8.5.1 IREDA 
    • 8.5.2 Banks and other Agencies  

    8.5.3 RE-INVEST 

    8.6 RISKS AND MITIGATION ISSUES

    • 8.6.1 Business and Investment Risks
    • 8.6.2 Risk Mitigation Strategies 

    9. Environmental Aspects of Hydropower Development

    9.1 IMPACTS OF RESERVOIR

    • 9.1.1 Flooding and Natural Habitats
    • 9.1.2 Loss of Terrestrial Wildlife
    • 9.1.3 Hydrological Changes in Downstream and Erosion
    • 9.1.4 Fish and Other Aquatic Life
    • 9.1.5 Floating Aquatic Vegetation
    • 9.1.6 Reservoir Sedimentation
    • 9.1.7 Greenhouse Gases
    • 9.1.8 Deforestation and Impact on Local Climate
    • 9.1.9 Reservoir Induced Earthquakes

    9.2 IMPACT OF ASSOCIATED CIVIL WORKS

    • 9.2.1 Access Roads
    • 9.2.2 Power Transmission Lines
    • 9.3.3 Quarries and Borrow Pits 

    9.3  SOCIAL IMPACTS

    • 9.3.1 Rehabilitation of Population  
    • 9.3.2 Deterioration of Water Quality
    • 9.3.3 Water Borne Diseases
    • 9.3.4 Sudden Release of  Water of Dam Failure
    • 9.3.5 Loss of Cultural Heritage    

    9.4 BENEFICIAL IMPACTS 

    10. Policies for Sustainable Hydropower Development

    10.1 SUSTAINABLE POWER DEVELOPMENT

    10.2 GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND REGULATORY ASPECTS   

    10.3 CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM

    10.4 SUPPORTING ORGANIZATIONS 

    Annexure-1 Relevant Standards 

    Annexure-2 Facts and Figures

    Index/About the Author

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