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Policy Intervention Analysis: environmental impact assessment

  • Author(s): Ritu Paliwal and Leena Srivastava
  • Size: 180 mm × 240 mm
  • Pages: 228
  • Binding: Hardback
  • Language: English
  • ISBN: 9788179934999
  • Cover Price:

    Rs.525.00 / US $37.00

  • Special Price: Rs. 472.00 / US $34.00

Book Details

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is crucial for protecting the environment, especially in a country like India—with its dense and rapidly growing population, shrinking land mass, and an economy poised for rapid growth. In order to make EIA an interactive process, it is necessary that it is supported by a strong follow-up mechanism. A properly formulated follow-up process would not only encourage compliance but also increase awareness among the stakeholders.

Policy Intervention Analysis: environmental impact assessment evaluates the adequacy of post project monitoring (PPM) process in India and its effective implementation with a focus on the industrial sector. The book investigates the reasons for poor compliance and gives corrective measures for corrective PPM. It identifies specific measures to improve environmental conditions and provides an action plan that will help strengthen the monitoring and enforcement mechanism based on specific regional concerns.

Target Audience

    Postgraduates/PhD scholars, scientists/teachers in Environmental Studies, policy makers

Table of Contents

    1. EIA Process in India and its Constraints
    Introduction
    What is an EIA?
    EIA in India
    Significance of the Study
    Outline of the Book

    2. Comparative Review of EIA
    Introduction
    EIA in India
    Evaluation of the Indian EIA System

    3. Haldia: A Case Study
    Introduction
    Haldia: An Industrial Estate

    4. Concept of EIA Follow–up and Practice in India
    EIA Follow-up
    Institutional Arrangement of Follow-up in India
    Appraisal of Follow-up Process in India
    Cost of Follow-up in Haldia

    5. Environmental Quality Assessment
    Introduction
    Pollution Load from Various Units
    Air Quality Assessment—Dispersion Modelling
    Water Quality Assessment
    Effectiveness of the Monitoring Network

    6. Enforcement Mechanisms
    Introduction
    Enforcement Mechanism in India
    Enforcement in Haldia
    Penalties Imposed Versus Cost of Compliance in Haldia

    7. Questionnaire Analysis
    Introduction
    Structure of the Questionnaire
    Statistical Analysis of the Questionnaire
    Common Facts in the Analysis and Questionnaire

    8. Conclusion and Policy Implications
    Conclusion
    Policy Implications to Make the Follow-up Effective

    List of Tables:
    1.Comparison of EIA system in various countries
    2.SWOT analysis of the Indian EIA system with respect to the 1994 notification
    3.Sex ratio and literacy rate in Haldia
    4.Land use pattern of Haldia in 1989 and 2001
    5.Seasons in Haldia
    6.Meteorological data for 2003, Haldia
    7.Common fauna of the region
    8.Health facilities working in the area
    9.Traffic count at mid-blocks
    10.List of industries in Haldia
    11.Water demand of various operating units in Haldia
    12.Ground water usage among units in Haldia
    13.Waste water discharge of various units
    14.Terminology related to follow-up
    15.Guiding principles to implement EIA follow-up
    16.Overview of the environmental regulations specified by the MoEF
    17.Content analysis of specified environmental conditions
    18.Details of source monitoring carried out by WBPCB
    19.Details of ambient air quality monitoring carried out by industries
    20.Details of source monitoring carried out by industries
    21.Compliance status of units with respect to the given TORs
    22.Frequency of monitoring in various units along with instances of non-compliance (2000–04)
    23.Categories of ventilation coefficient
    24.Air quality index for Haldia based on data at two stations
    25.Instances of imposed bank guarantee
    26.Annual cost of follow-up in Haldia in INR
    27.Major air-polluting industrial units in Haldia
    28.Fuel consumption of West Bengal—emission factors and sulphur content
    29.Adopted emission factors for vehicles
    30.Stability classification
    31.Wind profile exponent based on stability classes
    32.Model performance evaluation for selected stations
    33.Details of the variables used in HD module calibration
    34.Description of accounted point load discharges to river
    35.Hoogly and GBC
    36.Details of the variables used in EL module calibration
    37.Examples of a few recent and significant penalties in the USA
    38.Significant court judgements on environmental protection
    39.Significant court-imposed fines/penalties
    40.Penalty provision as indicated in the Air and Water Act in India
    41.Total environmental cost of non-compliance
    42.What are the major contributions of EIA?
    43.Will EIA 2006 notification bring substantial improvements in the process of PPM?
    44.Where PPM guidelines need elaboration?
    45.What are the most probable reasons of non-compliance on the part of industries?
    46.Whether duplicity of efforts (that is, compliance checks by SPCB and RO) should be removed to utilize resources of regulatory authorities effectively?
    47.For improved compliance and extensive source and ambient monitoring, which of the following arrangement is feasible and will also be a solution to limitation of regulatory agencies?
    48.Which enforcement mechanism is more recommended to bind industrial units to regulations?
    49.If capacity building initiatives have to be directed towards “legal powers”, which agency should have the legal power of enforcement for environmental regulations?
    50.Opinion of industries to improve compliance and implementation
     

    List of Figures:
    1.Various stages in the EIA process
    2.EIA process in the USA
    3.EIA process in the Netherlands
    4.EIA process in the People’s Republic of China
    5.EIA process in Brazil
    6.EIA process in Mexico
    7.EIA process in India (added in 2006 notification)
    8.Overview of the study area—Haldia
    9.Population growth trend in HPA
    10.Annual wind rose of the Haldia region in 2003
    11.General soil stratification and hydrogeology
    12.Road network in Haldia (road numbers are explained in Table 3.7)
    13.Indicative map of the location of industries around the Green Belt
    14.Canal (GBC) in Haldia
    15.A few industrial establishments discharging emissions from stacks
    16.Framework of PPM in India
    17.Location of air and water monitoring stations of WBPCB
    18.Hourly ventilation coefficients for winter and summer months
    19.Monthly concentrations of RSPM and SPM at two stations in Haldia
    20.Monthly concentrations of SO2 and NOx at two stations in Haldia
    21.Concentration of O&G at 10 locations in the GBC
    22.Concentration of TSS at 10 locations in the GBC
    23.Concentration of BOD at 10 locations in the GBC
    24.Concentration of COD at 10 locations in the GBC
    25.Instances of non-compliance in GBC regarding monthly monitoring in 2003
    26.Instances of non-compliance in GBC regarding monthly monitoring in 2004
    27.Percentage contributions to SPM by various sources
    28.Percentage contributions of various industries to total industrial SPM
    29.Percentage contributions to SO2 by various sources
    30.Percentage contributions of various industries to total industrial SO2
    31.Overview map showing Hoogly estuary and GBC (PST–SWAL; FBR–CFCL; PCU–MCPI)
    32.Percentage contributions of various industries to the total O&G load
    33.Percentage contributions of various industries to the total TSS load
    34.Percentage contributions of various industries to the total BOD load
    35.Percentage contributions of various industries to the total COD load
    36.Seasonal wind rose of Haldia
    37.Monthly stability profile of Haldia
    38.Observed and predicted monthly SPM concentration at WBIIDC
    39.Observed and predicted monthly SPM concentration at Supermarket
    40.Observed and predicted monthly SO2 concentration at WBIIDC
    41.Observed and predicted monthly SO2 concentration at Supermarket
    42.SPM isopleths for the pre-monsoon season
    43.SPM isopleths for the monsoon season
    44.SPM isopleths for the post-monsoon season
    45.SPM isopleths for the winter season
    46.SO2 isopleths for the pre-monsoon season
    47.SO2 isopleths for the monsoon season
    48.SO2 isopleths for the post-monsoon season
    49.SO2 isopleths for the winter season
    50.Bathymetry of Haldia
    51.Water levels at Diamond Harbour used as northern boundary
    52.Water levels at Sagar Roads used as southern boundary
    53.Model calibration: comparison between model-simulated and measured tidal elevation at Raichak
    54.Model calibration: comparison between model simulated and measured tidal elevation at Fraiser
    55.Model calibration: comparison between model-simulated results and measured BOD levels at various locations in GBC
    56.Model validation: comparison between model-simulated results and measured tidal elevation at Kulpi (top) and Gangra (bottom)
    57.Model result: predicted flow at Pataikhali 1 and Pataikhali 2
    58.Model result: DO at three locations in GBC
    59.Model result: BOD at three locations in GBC
    60.BOD level in the river and part of GBC: high water and ebb condition in river; outflow from GBC(top); ebb condition in river; outward flow from GBC (middle); ebb condition in river and outward flow in GBC (bottom)
    61.BOD level in the river and part of GBC: ebb condition in river and outflow in GBC (top); at low water, start of flood in river, inward flow in GBC (middle); flood condition in the river, inward flow in the GBC (bottom)
    62.Model result: DO of river Hoogly near Pataikhali 1 and 2
    63.Model result: BOD of river Hoogly near Pataikhali 1 and 2
    64.Photographs taken near the Oil Jetty end of GBC
    65.Suggestive framework for PPM in India

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